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Diabetes and Hypertension

Did you know that Diabetes and Hypertension are the leading causes of KIDNEY DISEASE?

Diabetes and hypertension are common problems that have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In India, 7.7 crore people are suffering from diabetes, and 22 crore people have hypertension. Only a tiny fraction of this population has their disease controlled by medicines.

Uncontrolled blood sugars and blood pressure are the commonest cause of chronic kidney disease worldwide.

Patients with early chronic kidney disease may have no symptoms early on. Symptoms generally appear when more than 75% of kidney function is lost.

The earliest abnormality in kidney disease is usually leakage of protein (albumin) in the urine. Normal kidneys take up whatever little protein gets into the urine. When the kidneys don’t function well, the protein leaks into the urine. This can be detected using simple urine tests.

Diabetes and hypertension commonly occur together and uncontrolled disease rapidly deteriorates kidney function. Serum creatinine rises only when about 50 percent of kidney function is lost.

In a more advanced state of kidney dysfunction, the patient may have low urine output, swelling of feet, breathlessness, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, confusion, or coma.

Control of blood sugar and blood pressure is extremely crucial.
Early detection of abnormalities in kidney function is important. This can be done with simple laboratory tests and ultrasound
Certain medications like ACEIs and ARBs are particularly helpful in patients with diabetic kidney disease. They help by reducing protein leakage in urine and may slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease.
Avoidance of painkillers and other medicines with the potential to damage kidney
Prompt identification and treatment of any infection that occurs.
Routine tests and follow-up with a watch on kidney functions.
An important aspect of managing diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease is lifestyle management. These changes are actually for everyone to follow, but are especially important for patients with kidney disease.
Low salt intake
Regular exercise
Quit smoking

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